Clean Development Mechanism

Established under the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC, the Clean Development Mechanism is the most prominent market-based mechanism that involves emissions trading between developed and developing countries. The CDM allows developed countries – specifically those included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol – to reduce their overall emissions more cost-effectively in developing countries than at home.

Current CDM rules and procedures contain some tools that help promote a rights-based approach, such as various channels for public participation. However, the CDM has yet to fully adopt a rights-based approach to ensure that its operations contribute to sustainable development, including respect for human rights.


Submission to the UNFCCC re: revision of the CDM Modalities and Procedures (26 Mar 2013)

Submission to the CDM re: stakeholder consultation during the validation process (CIEL and Earthjustice, 15 Aug 2011)

Submission to the CDM re: sustainability benefits (CIEL and Earthjustice, 3 July 2011)

Submission to the CDM re: proposed appeals procedure (CDM Watch et al., 22 Apr 2010)